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Toronto Star
  • Why immigrant kids become homeless: study finds cultural clash with parents is the top reason

    At age 12, Cheyanne Ratnam began couch-surfing to keep herself housed. By 14, she was a ward of the Children’s Aid Society of Toronto. After she grew out of care, the young immigrant still faced the prospect of becoming homeless.

    “My mother had multiple jobs to support the two of us. I grew up in the Canadian culture and there was a difference between cultures. My mom did not approve of the choices I made. I was well adjusted, and I didn’t understand why mom could not,” said Ratnam, now 27.

    She describes a family life filled with emotional conflicts.

    “In her eyes, I was rebellious. And I just wanted to run away from home and get away.”

    According to a groundbreaking Toronto study to be released Tuesday, intergenerational conflict over cultural differences is the most common reason immigrant youth end up homeless — followed by family disapproval of the young person’s sexual orientation.

    “The main precipitant of their homelessness is the clashes between the new culture people are coming to, which is freer and easier, and the old, traditional life their parents had,” said Dr. Kwame McKenzie, of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, which conducted the joint study with CAS Toronto.

    “It is more than the adolescent tension between parents wanting kids to live the lives they had and the new generation wanting to push forward. That tension is magnified in newcomer families.”

    One-third of Canada’s 65,000 homeless population are youths, and of those, nearly one-quarter were born outside Canada. The study’s definition of homelessness include those staying outside, staying in a shelter or transitional housing, having no fixed address, “couch-surfing” or staying at a friend’s or family’s home.

    “Age, gender, race and sexual orientation are among the multitude of factors that shape a young person’s experience of and pathway into homelessness,” says the report, Hidden in Our Midst: Homeless Newcomer Youth in Toronto.

    “For newcomer youth, however, it is the juncture of these factors, in addition to the presence of language and cultural barriers, lack of status, personal ties and history in Canada that uniquely situate them amongst the most vulnerable of homeless youth.”

    Through partnerships with community groups, researchers interviewed 74 homeless immigrant youth in Toronto — 45 per cent women, 55 per cent men — and surveyed service providers to get a better picture of their needs and support available.

    Among the sample of participants, 36 per cent of the youth were from the Caribbean, followed by Africa (27 per cent), the Middle East (10 per cent) and South America (9 per cent).

    More than half were permanent residents, with 37 per cent being Canadian citizens, 27 per cent somewhere in the asylum process and 7 per cent here on visitor or student visas. Many started becoming homeless at age 17, and the average length of homelessness was 30 months.

    More than a quarter of the youth reported previous experience of trauma, such as war and political unrest in their country of origin, while 45 per cent said they had suffered physical abuse and one-third sexual abuse.

    One in five also self-identified as queer and a further 17 per cent indicated they were “questioning” or preferred to not disclose their sexual orientation.

    Although 40 per cent of the youth arrived to Canada with their parents, one in three came here alone.

    The study identified separation from parents due to immigration as a unique challenge newcomer youth faced. Nearly a quarter reported having been involved with the Children’s Aid Society, and 9 per cent had been in its direct care since arriving in Canada.

    “Family conflict and income insecurity were the main factors for why newcomer youth first entered a situation of homelessness,” the report says. “Family breakdown and instability, such as separation, blended families, and changing cities are significant contributors to youth homelessness.”

    Carline Casimir, 22, has lived at the edge of homelessness since she came here alone from St. Lucia in June 2012. She only knew of a cousin in Toronto and stayed at her one-bedroom apartment for a week before moving into a women’s shelter.

    Like more than a quarter of the newcomer youth interviewed by researchers, Casimir is a parent. Being a single mom and visible minority on social assistance, she said she often faces discrimination from landlords and employers, making life that much more difficult.

    “They judge you on your circumstances. Because of that prejudice, no one would give you an apartment, a job or a chance for anything,” said Casimir, who shares an apartment with her 2-year-old daughter and a friend from her church.

    Casimir spends 70 per cent of her income on housing and relies on the food bank and support from members of her church for groceries and shelter. “It’s really trying at times,” she said.

    Newcomer youth participating in the study identified “religion or God” as their main source of support (45 per cent), followed by friends (28 per cent) and romantic partners (24 per cent).

    Ann Fitzpatrick of CAS Toronto said the study finds a mismatch between the needs of homeless newcomer youth and currently available services.

    “For the youth, there are the income security piece, the employment piece and affordable housing piece to the problem,” said Fitzpatrick, the society’s community development and prevention program supervisor.

    “Many of the services operate in silos. We need to better coordinate, integrate these services and make them more youth-oriented.”

    Janice Hayes, executive director of Youth Link, a youth support agency in Toronto, said various community sectors — from ethnocultural-specific groups to family services, health centres and places of worship — can all play a role in providing a continuum of supports to these youth.

    “We deal with so many kids and this (newcomer) group often gets lost,” said Hayes, whose agency supported 6,049 youth in the city last year through a variety of programs, including co-op housing and a women’s residence. “There is always the big trust factor. Building that is huge and expensive.”

    To prevent newcomer youth from becoming homeless, the report recommends developing peer support networks to guide youth to help, an intensive case-management approach in their settlement process, and boosting intergenerational family support, particularly for families that may have been separated for some time.

    To assist young people who are currently homeless, the study calls for a one-stop-shopping approach: a way that would allow youth in need to access a spectrum of services under one roof.

    Homeless immigrant youth

  • Nearly 2 out of 3 have origins in Africa or the Caribbean.
  • Over 1 in 3 identified as LGBTQ.
  • Over 25% identified as being a parent.
  • Over 50% report some level of religious or faith identity.
  • Family conflict was cited by two out of three as the main reason for becoming homeless.
  • Over 2 out of 3 indicated they would feel most comfortable seeking help from a family doctor or walk-in clinic.
  • Source: Hidden in Our Midst: Homeless Newcomer Youth in Toronto

  • Quebec-Ontario alliance trumps Stephen Harper snub: Cohn

    Behold the bonhomie and amity between two premiers and their cabinets in Toronto this week: Seven months after Quebec’s spring election, the spectre of separatism has transmogrified into full-fledged federalism.

    There’s a reason the Quebec-Ontario summit turned into a meeting of minds and ministers: Kathleen Wynne and Philippe Couillard are simpatico both in style and substance.

    Beyond the good will, there are good works on offer:

    Ontario and Quebec signed an unprecedented deal to swap 500 megawatts of electricity during peak periods by way of bartering. They compared notes on climate change. And they celebrated Ontario’s francophone face in a way that touched, viscerally, the visiting French Quebecers.

    At ground level, it is a federalist fantasy come true. Together, they are laying the groundwork for a Central Canadian axis of power (sharing) that is both political and electrical — with environmental and electoral benefits.

    But at another level — the federal level — their new entente cordiale between Canada’s two biggest provinces underscores a vacuum of national leadership in Ottawa. While the two premiers are partners, Prime Minister Stephen Harper stands apart — a spectator among interlocutors.

    On the eve of the Toronto summit, Harper delivered a bizarre snub to Wynne by refusing her overtures for a federal-provincial meeting. With her request unrequited, the spurned premier went public with their correspondence — pointedly asking why Canada’s biggest province, with 13 million people, can’t get federal face time.

    Then she got down to business with Couillard — showing that where there is political will, there can be policy headway.

    As noted in this space Thursday, the two provinces have agreed to swap generating capacity to complement each others’ seasonal peaks (Quebec’s greatest power consumption is during the winter heating season, while Ontario maxes out when air conditioner are turned up in summer heat). The 500-megawatt deal amounts to a large-sized power plant that Ontario will not have to build to cope with those seasonal peaks in future.

    Beyond the substance, the deal has symbolic value: The era of electricity separatism in Ontario (which coincided with Quebec’s separatist political impulses) is coming to an end. Wynne has signalled that she wants both provinces to explore more trade in renewable energy at the right price. Both provinces have also doubled the reserve of standby electricity that can be acquired on short notice by either side.

    Beyond the basics of buying and selling power, they will collaborate on the complexities of a cap and trade regime to curb emissions of greenhouse gases. Ontario has led the way in closing coal-fired generators but hasn’t taken the next step of imposing a price on carbon, while Quebec has repositioned itself as a clearinghouse for cap and trade auctions.

    Despite the electoral risks, Ontario is increasingly confident that a less visible cap and trade regime for large industrial polluters — as opposed to a carbon tax that is more conspicuous at the consumer level — will be more politically palatable, and possibly inevitable. With the U.S. and China finally getting serious about reducing greenhouse gases, Wynne believes the tide is turning — and that the prime minister’s continued resistance to tougher emissions targets will leave him offside not only with the world, but other provinces.

    Beyond Central Canada’s environmental entente, there is an emerging détente with Alberta under the leadership of its new premier, Jim Prentice. The early signals are that Prentice, who will be visiting his Ontario and Quebec counterparts within the next couple of weeks, may be more onside with carbon emissions as he seeks their support for an Energy East pipeline from Alberta.

    The triangulation between Canada’s three most economically important provinces underscores the extent to which Harper is not only abdicating a leadership role but avoiding a conversational role. The last time he called up Wynne was to ask her (along with other premiers) to stay out of Quebec’s spring election (she did). Now she is close to Couillard the victor, yet closed out by Harper the avoider.

    Not only do Harper and Wynne lack chemistry personally, they disagree on almost every policy — from pension enhancements to transit disbursements. By depriving her of a direct dialogue, Harper has made his churlishness a talking point.

    Should a prime minister ignore Ontario, which holds more federal seats than most other provinces combined, while making time for other premiers? Can Harper blackball a premier with a recent electoral mandate yet still be a prudent steward of the national interest?

    The fruits of the Quebec-Ontario friendship show that good politics can be good governance. The absence of an Ottawa-Ontario dialogue raises the risk that grudge politics will lead to bad governance.

    When Quebec and Ontario work together, Couillard argues, Canada wins. If Ottawa and Ontario don’t work together — or talk to each other — it’s self-evidently a missed opportunity. And Canada inevitably loses.

    Perhaps it now falls to the premier of Quebec — having becalmed separatist impulses at home — to play the role of federalist peacemaker by bringing Queen’s Park and Ottawa together again.

    Martin Regg Cohn?s Ontario politics column appears Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it '; document.write( '' ); document.write( addy_text31467 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //-->\n This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it , Twitter: @reggcohn

  • Upon review, Raptors matched franchise record margin of victory vs. Bucks

    It was a Raptors win for the record books after all. An official scoring change for Friday night?s game now gives Toronto a 124-82 win over the Milwaukee Bucks, equalling the franchise record for margin of victory.

    The NBA announced Saturday afternoon that the scoring crew incorrectly credited Milwaukee?s John Henson with a three-point field goal for a shot in the lane that should have been a two-pointer.

    The change to a 42-point win ties Friday?s game with a 96-54 win over Miami in March, 2008.

    Click here for Doug Smith?s weekend mailbag

Arts & Letters
Trudy
Sunday, 12 August 2007